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exam 4 retha
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Microbiological contaminants are best described as >>unwanted microbes present on or in a substance.any and all microbes present on or in a substance.pathogenic microbes present on or in a substance.vegetative microbes present on or in a substance.None of the choices are correct.
Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all the following except ultraviolet radiation.boiling water.HEPA filters.pasteurization.>>hydrogen peroxide.
Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls? naked virusesprotozoan cystsfungal spores>>bacterial endosporesyeast
The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores is >>disinfection.sterilization.antisepsis.sanitization.degermation.
The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is disinfection.sterilization.antisepsis.>>sanitization.degermation.
The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is >>disinfection.sterilization.antisepsis.sanitization.degermation.
The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is disinfection.sterilization.>>antisepsis.sanitization.degermation.
Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is disinfection.sterilization.antisepsis.sanitization.>>degermation.
Which of the following types of control agents would be used to achieve sterility? virucidebactericidegermicide>>sporicidefungicide
Which is correct regarding the rate of microbial death? cells die at increasingly greater ratesonly older cells die in a culture>>cells in a culture die at a constant rateupon contact with the control agent, all cells die at one timecells become metabolically inactive but are never killed
Sterilization is achieved by flash water.boiling water.>>steam autoclave.All of the choices are correct.
Dry heat >>is less efficient than moist heat.cannot sterilize.includes used in devices called autoclaves.will sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes.
Endospores can be killed by dry heat at 170 C for 2 hours.incineration.glutaldehyde for 3 or more hours.ethylene oxide for 3 or more hours.>>All of the choices are correct.
The minimum sterilizing conditions in a steam autoclave are >>121 C at 15 psi for 15 minutes.63 C for 30 minutes.160 C for 2 hours.71.6 C for 15 seconds.100 C for 30 minutes.
The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the thermal death point (TDP).>>thermal death time (TDT).sporicidal time.death phase point.None of the choices are correct.
Disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk, and wine, is optimally achieved by >>pasteurization.chlorination.moist heat autoclave.filtration.boiling water.
Electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to dessication.ultraviolet light.ethyl alcohol.hydrogen peroxide.>>gamma rays and X rays.
Which of the following items are typically irradiated in order to kill microbes? ground beef and other meat and poultryhuman tissues such as heart valves and skinoperating room airsurgical gloves>>All of the choices are correct.
HEPA filters are used to remove microbes from >>air.liquids.human tissues.medical instruments.All of the choices are correct.
Which of the following does not contain a heavy metal? >>tincture of iodineMerthiolatesilver nitrate solutionszincMercurochrome
All of the following are phenols or phenolics except Lysol.hexachlorophene.triclosan.cresols.>>chloramines.
The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are naked viruses.>>vegetative bacteria and fungi.endospores.protozoan cysts.mycobacteria and staphylococci.
Which control method would not be a suitable choice for killing mycobacteria in a capped culture tube? >>ultraviolet (germicidal) lightgamma rays121 C at 15 psi for 15 minutes160 C for 2 hoursAll of the choices are correct.
All of the following pertain to hypochlorites except release hypochlorous acid in solution.cause denaturation of enzymes.>>found in iodophors.used to disinfect dairy, restaurant, and medical equipment.found in common household bleach.
Which of the following is not used as an antiseptic? iodophorchlorhexidine3% hydrogen peroxideMerthiolate>>aqueous glutaraldehyde
Iodophors include chloramines.>>Betadine.tincture of iodine.alcohols.chlorhexidine.
The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings, and is used increasingly for handscrubbing, neonatal washes, wound degerming, and prepping surgical skin sites is carbolic acid.>>chlorhexidine.triclosan.formalin.quarternary ammonium compounds.
Alcohols denature proteins when in a 50 - 95% alcohol-water solution.disinfect items soaked in alcohol.are skin degerming 50% or higher concentrations dissolve cell membrane lipids.>>All of the choices are correct.
Which is mismatched? sodium hypochlorite - chlorineiodophor - iodinebenzalkonium chloride - quaternary ammonium compound>>Merthiolate - silverformalin - formaldehyde
All of the following are correct about iodophors except they are complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer.>>this formulation allows a quick release of free iodine.this formulation increases its is less prone to staining or irritating tissue.a common iodophor is Betadine.
The sterilizing gas used in a special chamber is >>ethylene oxide.iodophor.glutaraldehyde.formaldehyde.chlorine dioxide.
The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is Cidex.cationic detergents.>>hydrogen peroxide.chlorhexidine.iodophors.
All the following are correct about detergents except they are polar molecules that act as surfactants.the most effective ones are positively low concentrations they are bacteriostatic.they are ineffective against the tuberculosis bacteria.>>they are active in the presence of organic matter.
Ethylene oxide is >>sporicidal.only effective with high heat.the active agent in household bleach.used as an antiseptic against anaerobes.a halogen.
Which of the following is being used to replace hypochlorites in treating water because of the possibility of cancer-causing substances being produced? hydrogen peroxide>>chloraminesfluorinequaternary ammonium compoundssodium iodide
Which of the following chemicals is a disinfectant for soft contact lenses? >>hydrogen peroxidealcoholhexachloropheneglutaraldehydehypochorites
Which of the following is officially accepted as a sterilant and high-level disinfectant? benzalkonium chloridesilver nitrate>>glutaraldehydetriclosancresol
All of the following are correct about food irradiation except food is not made radioactive by the process.>>the World Health Organization does not endorse this is approved in the U.S. for beef, chicken and can lead to a longer shelf life for the irradiated irradiated food can be sold without clear labeling.
All of the following are benefits of food irradiation except it can kill bacterial pathogens on the can kill insects on the can inhibit the sprouting of white can reduce the number of food-borne deaths each year.>>it makes the food less nutritious.
All of the following are methods of disinfection or sterilization except gamma radiation.dry oven.>>lyophilization.triclosan.ethanol.
Historically, which of the following was instilled into the eyes of newborn infants to prevent gonococcal infections? triclosanformaldehydephenol>>silver nitratemercurochrome
Which common hospital pathogen is able to grow abundantly in soap dishes? Escherichia coli>>PseudomonasHemophilus influenzaeMycobacteria tuberculosisSalmonella
All of the following are correct about the autoclave except it is important not to overload the chamber.>>it is effective for sterilizing powders, oils, and waxy substances.the duration of the process depends on how full the chamber is the temperature that kills the microbes, not the pressure by itself.sterilization is achieved when steam condenses against the objects in the chamber and raises their temperatures.
Which of the following types of agents targets protein conformation? DetergentsUltraviolet light>>AlcoholHydrogen peroxideCrystal violet
Bacteriocidal agents are sterilants. >>FALSETRUE
Bacteriostatic agents kill bacterial cells. >>FALSETRUE
The presence of organic matter such as saliva and pus can interfere with the actions of disinfectants. >>TRUEFALSE
When a control agent targets the metabolic processes of microbial cells, active younger cells typically die more rapidly than older cells. >>TRUEFALSE
A microorganism that is not motile and has stopped metabolizing could be considered dead. >>FALSETRUE
Most microbial contaminants of food are killed at freezing temperatures. >>FALSETRUE
Filtration is an effective method to remove microbes from air and liquids. >>TRUEFALSE
Chlorine compounds remain stable and effective in the presence of excess organic matter. >>FALSETRUE
Aniline dyes like crystal violet have antimicrobial activity particularly against gram positive bacteria and some fungi. >>TRUEFALSE
Alcohols are more effective at inactivating enveloped viruses than naked viruses. >>TRUEFALSE
Isopropyl alcohol wiped across a skin site can sterilize it. >>FALSETRUE
Chlorine dioxide and ethylene oxide are gaseous sterilants. >>TRUEFALSE
_____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to _____ heat. >>Moist, drySomething Else
Vials of microorganisms that undergo the freeze-drying process called _____ will remain preserved and viable for years. >>lypophilizationSomething Else
A method for sterilizing milk, called _____ temperature treatment, uses 134 C for 1 to 2 seconds. >>ultrahighSomething Else
_____ radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers. >>NonionizingSomething Else
Some microbial control agents are able to _____ cell proteins by breaking bonds that maintain the native state, three-dimensional configuration of the proteins. >>denatureSomething Else
_____ filters are widely used to provide a flow of sterile air to hospital rooms. >>HEPASomething Else
_____ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage. >>ChlorineSomething Else
__________ or steam sterilization is the process by which steam is heated under pressure to sterilize objects. >>AutoclavingSomething Else
Which is mismatched? Fleming - penicillinDomagk - sulfonamide>>Ehrlich - tetracyclineFlorey and Chain - penicillinNone of the choices are correct.
Salvarsan was discovered in the mid-1900's.>>used to treat syphilis.formulated from the red dye prontosil.first discovered as a product of Penicillium notatum.discovered by Robert Koch.
Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called >>antibiotics.narrow-spectrum drugs.semisynthetic drugs.synthetic drugs.broad-spectrum drugs
Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed antibiotics.narrow-spectrum drugs.semisynthetic drugs.synthetic drugs.>>broad-spectrum drugs.
Antibiotics are derived from all the following except Penicillium.Bacillus.>>Staphylococcus.Streptomyces.Cephalosporium.
Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include readily delivered to the site of infection.high toxicity against microbial not cause serious side effects in humans.remains active in body tissues and fluids.>>All of the choices are correct.
Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause nephrotoxicity.>>superinfections.allergic reactions.drug toxicity.All of the choices are correct.
Penicillins and cephalosporins interfere with DNA synthesis.are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis.damage cell membranes.>>block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
Sulfonamides interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan.>>are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis.damage cell membranes.block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
Aminoglycosides interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan.are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.>>attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis.damage cell membranes.block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have >>a beta-lactam ring.resistance to the action of penicillinase.a semisynthetic expanded spectrum of activity.All of the choices are correct.
A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is synercid.penicillinase.aztreonam.>>clavulanic acid.imipenem.
All of the following pertain to cephalosporins except they have a beta-lactam ring.greater resistance to beta-lactamases.newer generations have activity against gram negatives.many administered by injection not orally.>>they are synthetic drugs.
Which antimicrobic does not inhibit cell wall synthesis? >>gentamicinvancomycincephalosporinspenicillinsclavamox
Gram negative rods are often treated with penicillin G.vancomycin.>>aminoglycosides.synercid.isoniazid.
This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis penicillin G.vancomycin.aminoglycosides.synercid.>>isoniazid.
Which antimicrobic does not interfere with protein synthesis? aminoglycosidestetracyclineserythromycin>>trimethroprimchloramphenicol
Which of these drugs is useful in treating infections by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus? tetracyclineisoniazid>>linezolidaminoglycosidescephalosporins
All of the following pertain to fluoroquinolones except broad spectrum.include ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.>>are nephrotoxic.used to treat respiratory, urinary, and sexually transmitted infections.they work by inhibiting bacterial DNA replication.
Antimicrobics that are macrolides disrupt cell membrane function.include tetracyclines.>>include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin.are very narrow-spectrum drugs.are hepatotoxic.
The drug that can cause aplastic anemic, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is >>chloramphenicol.clindamycin.ciprofloxacin.bacitracin.gentamicin.
The drug used against intestinal anaerobic bacteria, that can also alter normal flora causing antibiotic-associated colitis is chloramphenicol.>>clindamycin.ciprofloxacin.bacitracin.gentamicin.
The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is nystatin.griseofulvin.>>amphotericin B.sulfa drugs.metronidazole.
The drug used for several protozoan infections is nystatin.griseofulvin.amphotericin B.sulfa drugs.>>metronidazole.
Mebendazole, niclosamide, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat _____ infections. bacterialfungalprotozoan>>helminthicvirus
Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat _____ infections. bacterial>>fungalprotozoanhelminthicvirus
There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because these organisms do not cause many human infections.are not affected by antimicrobics.>>are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult.are parasites found inside human cells.have fewer target sites compared to bacteria.
Which of the following is not a mode of action of antivirals? block penetrationblock transcription and translationinhibit DNA synthesisblock maturation>>bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that blocks penetration.>>blocks DNA replication.inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking.blocks maturation.bonds to ergosterol in the cell membrane.
Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat influenza A virus.>>HIV.herpes zoster virus.respiratory syncytial virus.hepatitis C virus.
Acyclovir is used to treat influenza A virus.HIV.>>shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes.respiratory syncytial virus.hepatitis C virus.
The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include bacterial chromosomal mutations.synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure.prevention of drug entry into the cell.alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.>>All of the choices are correct.
The multidrug resistant pumps in many bacterial cell membranes cause bacterial chromosomal mutations.synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure.>>prevention of drug entry into the cell.alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.All of the choices are correct.
Side effects that occur in patient tissues while they are on antimicrobic drugs include all the following except >>development of resistance to the drug.hepatotoxicity.nephrotoxicity.diarrhea.deafness.
A superinfection results from build up of a drug to toxic levels in the patient.the wrong drug administered to the immune system reaction to the drug.>>decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species.All of the choices are correct.
Drug susceptibility testing determines the patient's response to various antimicrobics.>>determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.determines if normal flora will be affected by antimicrobics.determines if the drug is increasing to toxic levels in a patient.determines the pathogen's identity.
A clinical microbiologist makes serial dilutions of several antimicrobics in broth, then incubates each drug dilution series with a standard amount of a patient's isolated pathogen. What is this microbiologist setting up? Kirby-BauerantibiogramE-test>>MICtherapeutic index (TI)
A ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans versus the minimum effective dose for that pathogen is assessed to predict the potential for toxic drug reactions. This is called the Kirby-Bauer.antibiogram.E-test.MIC.>>therapeutic index (TI).
Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed antibiotics.>>narrow-spectrum drugs.semisynthetic drugs.synthetic drugs.broad-spectrum drugs.
A ""shotgun"" approach to antimicrobial therapy involves giving a narrow spectrum drug.culturing the pathogen and identifying it.performing the disk diffusion assay.>>using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater.using antiviral and antibiotic drugs in combination.
Which of the following will influence a physician's decision to prescribe an antimicrobial? patient agepregnancyliver functionalcohol use>>All of the choices are correct.
All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails except the inability of the drug to diffuse into the infected body compartment.a mixed infection where some of the pathogens are drug resistant.not completing the full course of treatment.>>a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic.diminished gastrointestinal absorption due to an underlying condition or age.
All of the following are correct about allergic reactions to drugs except the drug acts as an antigen.the greatest number of antimicrobic allergies are to the penicillins.hives may be the result after the drug is taken.anaphylaxis can occur.>>allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.
Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs? >>LiverKidneysGall bladderSpleenStomach
Which of the following antimicrobials is contraindicated for children due to permanent tooth discoloration? Penicillin G>>TetraclyclineGentamicinVancomycinErythromycin
Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds? Because it makes the animals grow too large.Because it causes infections in the cows and poultry fed them.Because it raises the price of the meat too high.>>Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem.All of the choices are correct.
Which of the following describes the mechanism of action for AZT? >>it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesisit directly binds to reverse transcriptase and prevents reverse transcription of HIV RNAit inhibits the assembly of HIV particlesit inhibits fusion of the viral envelope and host cell prevents the viral DNA from integrating in the host chromosome
All of the following are correct about Tamiflu and Relenza except they should be given early in an infection.>>they prevent assembly and release of the virus.they are used to treat infections by influenza A and B.they inhibit fusion and uncoating of the virus.they are effective prophylactics for influenza.
When a patient's immune system reacts adversely to a drug, this serious side effect is called a superinfection. >>FALSETRUE
A semisynthetic antibiotic is a drug which is chemically modified in the laboratory after being isolated from natural sources. >>TRUEFALSE
Species of Bacillus produce bacitracin and the polymyxins. >>TRUEFALSE
Ciprofloxacin is used to treat viral respiratory infections. >>FALSETRUE
Resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during transformation, transduction, and conjugation. >>TRUEFALSE
The MIC is the smallest concentration of an antimicrobic required to inhibit the growth of the microbe. >>TRUEFALSE
Drugs that are hepatotoxic cause damage to a patient's kidneys. >>FALSETRUE
The Kirby-Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface. >>TRUEFALSE
An antimicrobic with a low therapeutic index is a safer choice compared to a drug with a high therapeutic index. >>FALSETRUE
_____ are plasmids that contain genes for resistance to a drug. >>R FactorsSomething Else
Sulfonamides are analogs of PABA and, as a result, they inhibit _____ synthesis. >>folic acidSomething Else
The macrolide, __________ is a useful substitute for dealing with penicillin-resistant streptococci. >>erythromycinSomething Else
Drugs that act by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme, thereby blocking its active site, are called _____. >>competitive InhibitorsSomething Else
________ are preparations of live microorganisms that are fed to animals and humans to modify the intestinal flora. >>ProbioticsSomething Else
The major source of naturally produced penicillin is the mold _____. >>Penicillium chrysogenumSomething Else
Nutrients that encourage the growth of beneficial microbes in the intestines are called ________. >>prebioticsSomething Else
Polyene drugs bind to fungal _____ and cause loss of selective permeability. >>cell MembranesSomething Else
Short peptides produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria are called _____. >>lantibioticsSomething Else
If pathogen A is more resistant to an erythromycin disc on a Kirby-Bauer plate compared to pathogen B, then pathogen A will have a _____ zone of inhibition compared to pathogen B. >>smallerSomething Else

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